Mongolian earliest inhabitants the Siung- nu, or Huns have been settled in Selenge valleys region in 400 BC. The Huns created a great empire in Mongolia when China was undergoing unification as an imperial state under the Chin and Han dynasties (221 BC- 220 AD). The Hun empire warred against China for centuries, until it disintegrated- perhaps due to internal conflicts- around the 4th century. In AD 744 the Uiguur seized Mongolia and held until 840 when the Kirghiz took control. The Mongol tribes were unified and reached the height of their power during the 13th century, Temuujin were recognized as leader of all Mongols, because of his political and military prowess. He and his heirs conquered China and extended their empire to eastern Europe. The Mongol Empire gradually declined in power, and in 1691 it came under the control of Ching dynasty of China. Under the Ching, present- day Mongolia was administered as the province of Outer Mongolia while the adjacent area to the southern was the province of Inner Mongolia. Outer Mongolia remained a province until 1911, when it claimed its independence. The Chinese reoccupied Outer Mongolia in 1919 but were driven out in 1921 with Soviet support. The Mongolian People's Republic was declared in 1924 and established diplomatic relations with the United States in 1987 and signed a border agreement with China in 1988 as part of an effort to create a nonaligned foreign policy. In 1990, the communist government ceded its constitutional power after 70 years monopol power. Now, Mongolia is an independent and sovereign country, an unitary State upholding rights, freedom, and free economy, in political and geographical respects based on its Constitution, and a foreign policy based on its national interests and political realism, diversifying its political and economic relations by acquiring new friends and partners, and ensuring its security primarily by political means.
THE CAPITAL CITY - ULAANBAATAR
The city is situated in a broad mountain valley near Tuul river, in the middle of four mountains: Chingelei Mountain, Bogd Mountain, Songino Khairkhan Mountain and Bayanzurkh Mountain. Ulaanbaatar is a modern city that have new hotels, restaurants, supermarkets and general recourse for all businesses. A hundreds years ago it was a felt- tented city made up of thousands of gers and temples, it changed its names several times, like Orgoo (Temple- ger), Ikh Khuree (Great Monastery Town), Nisslel Khuree (Capital Monastery), and present name Ulaanbaatar (Red Hero). In Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia's capital, traditional gers( felt tents) and Buddhist monasteries coexist with modern high- rises. Discover many museums and cultural monuments within the city- from restored monasteries to superb collections of Buddhist art and sculpture, artifacts of traditional nomadic daily life, and fossils collected from Gobi- Desert.
SIGHTSEEINGS IN ULAANBAATAR
Zaisan Khiil Memoral was erected on the 50th anniversary of the Communist Revolution and honors of the Soviet in Mongolian soldiers who died in WWII in the fight of against Japan and Nazi German. Mongolian people love to come here on their special occations and put beautiful flowers for memory. This Memoral Place located to the south of Ulaanbaatar, on the khiil of Bogd Khan National Park, which is considered national park from 300 years ago. View point of Ulaanbaatar city, where city is viewed like on your palm.
The largest and most significant Buddhist Monastery in Mongolia was built in 19th century, was only Buddhist Monastery during communist period. It consists of many temples, such as The Megjid Janraisag. It was built in 1911- 1912 to celebrate the end of Manchu domination, it is mixed Chinese and Tibetan style and inside is the 25,6 meter and 20 ton Avalokiteshvara- Janraisag statue.
The Palace was built between 1893- 1903, was the home of The Mongolia's last king Javjin Damba Khugat VIII. This complex of temples, and houses contain number of Buddhist artworks and private collections of Bogd Khan, composed of gifts from kings and rulers from all over the world. Bogd Agvaanluvsan was only 5 years old when he was proclaimed as the supreme religious leader, died in 1924. The museum consists in two ensembles: the first includes the Temples and Monasteries and the second is the Winter Palace.
The museum was named in honor of the first Mongolian Buddhist leader, Bogd Khan Zanabazar, who was a gifted painter, sculptor, linguist and architect. It opened in 1966 and shows Mongolian art works from the Paleolithic Age (early stone Age) to the early 20th century.
The Natural History Museum us the oldest public museum of Mongolia was opened in 1924. It displays exhibits on the geography, geology, botany, fauna and paleontology of Mongolia. The specimens of dinosaur skeletons and bones vary in size from a few centimeters to over 30 meters tall, and several are to found only in Mongolia.
It was founded in 1924 and contains the oldest collections (more than 40, 000 archaeological, historical, and ethnographic objects) in the country. They show you Mongolian history and culture from the dawn of humanity to present day. The rare esteemed displayed items include the remains from Hunnu period (the first Mongolian state) of 3rd BC to 1st AD.
The Museum (complex of temples) was built between 1904- 1908 for the Choijin Lama Luvsankhaidav, younger brother of Mongolian last king and religious leader eight Bogd Gegeen. The museum is famous for its collection of Buddhist artworks, original silk icons and tsam dancing masks, which are all religious objects are kept ready for Buddhist chanting ceremonies, and this is why it is called a temple museum.
Naadam - Wrestling, horse racing, and archery are Mongolia's Three Manly Sports. Each 11, 12th July the entire country celebrates National Holiday "NAADAM". National wrestling is held several around, depending on participants, the losers must quit the competition, but depending on the number of victories, the winners are honored with ancient titles: falcon, elephant, lion, and Titan. Originally, adults took part in horse racing competition, later so as to ease the burden on horsed in long- distance races, they replaced by children aged from six to ten, who quickly master the art of riding. Depending on age of the horses, distances vary from 5 to 30 km. All participants start simultaneously. The archery has been perfected centuries, small, round leather targets are put at a distance of 60- 100 m. The archers wear special glove on the thumb and index finger of the right hand and wrap the left arm up to the elbow in soft belts.
Mongolia and a number of Eastern and Central Asia countries have followed the Lunar Calendar with its 12 year animal cycle since ancient time. Mongolian New Year- Tsagaan Sar translates as the White Month, its date depending on the phrases of the moon, falls anywhere between the end of January and early March. All the families prepare plenty of food and gifts for this holiday. The New Year Eve in Mongolia called bituun- the last dinner of the old year families have big feast at homes. There are several traditional dishes to enjoy. The following morning everyone rise early, first greet the sun; in order to have good health an happiness in the new year, each individual take" their first step of the year". After this they recollect and begin greetings. The oldest member is the first to greet, by this they show their respect and love. And within first three days (further 15 days) all people visit and greet their relatives and friends.